PARIS (AFP) - In a hole in a ground there lived some hobbits -- lots of them, apparently.
A tiny hominid whose discovery in a cave on an Indonesian island unleashed one of the fiercest debates in anthropology has suddenly been joined by several other sets of dwarf-sized beings. At least nine other wee individuals lived in the cave, where thousands of years ago they skilfully butchered meat and handled fire, according to new findings. The initial find at Liang Bua cave, reported almost exactly a year ago, became known as the Hobbit Hominid, after the pint-sized characters of J.R.R. Tolkien's stories. Measuring just a metre or so (3.25 feet) high -- thus as tall as a chimpanzee -- and with a skull the size of a grapefruit, the strange creature lived around 18,000 years ago on the remote island of Flores.
The discoverers believed the Hobbit to be the smallest of the 10 species of Homo erectus, the primate that emerged from Africa about 2.5 million years ago and whose ultimate descendant is Homo sapiens, as anatomically modern man is called. They honoured him with the formal name of Homo floresiensis, "Man of Flores," and in so doing unleashed tribal warfare among anthropologists. In polite, scholarly tones that masked ruthlessness worthy of soccer hooligans, many of them attacked the notion that the Hobbit could be a separate human species.
After all, it would mean that Homo sapiens, who has been around for 150,000-200,000 years, would have shared the planet with other hominids much more recently than anyone had thought. It would mean that the Hobbits were still knocking around after key events traditionally considered as proof that Homo sapiens was master of the planet -- the extinction of the Neanderthals, the arrival of modern humans in Australia and the first agriculture, a landmark event that transformed humans from hunter-gatherers into settlers. To such critics, the one-off find proved nothing -- the skeleton could be that of a dwarf, the result of a genetic flaw in a tribe of Homo erectus or a disease called microcephaly, characterised by an abnormally small brain and head.
Now, though, Liang Bua has yielded more specimens, which adds a mighty weight to H. floresiensis' credentials. The new fossils consist of the right elbow and two bones of the lower forearm of the first skeleton; the mandible of a second individual; and assorted other remains, including two tibiae, a femur, two radii, an ulna, a scapula, a vertebra and various toe and finger bones. In all, bits and pieces from at least nine individuals have been found, and dating of the remains suggest some were alive as recently as 12,000 years ago. All seem to have been the same size as the original Hobbit. In addition, the new bones show that these people, for all their short size, had relatively long arms and, unlike H. sapiens, had no chin. The finds thus prove that the first Hobbit "is not just an aberrant or pathological individual, but is representative of a long-term population that was present during the interval (of) 95-74,000 to 12,000 years ago," the Australian-Indonesian team say. But that's not all. Gently extracted from Liang Bua's floor were the remains of a dwarf elephant called a Stegodon, whose bones, marked by flints, showed that the hobbits were good at butchering animals. There were also scarred bones and clusters of reddened, flame-cracked rocks, proof that the community was skillful at manipulating fire. In a review of the study, Harvard University expert Daniel Lieberman said the new fossils backed the contention that the Hobbits were a previously undiscovered branch of the human family tree.
Still unclear, though, is where these tiny hominids came from. One theory is that they evolved from Homo erectus by island dwarfing, a phenomenon that is well known in the animal kingdom. Under this, a large species that arrives on an island where there is little food becomes progressively smaller in population numbers and in physical size in order to survive. But this jibes with the discovery that the Hobbits were apparently good hunters and had mastered the means of keeping warm -- in other words, they had used human skills to buffer themselves against the pressures of natural selection. "The finds from Liang Bua are not only astonishing, but also exciting because of the questions they raise," said Lieberman. The study, lead-authored by Mike Morwood of the University of New England at Armidale, New South Wales, is published on Thursday in Nature, the British science journal. In a news item on its website, Nature said Tuesday Indonesia had refused to renew the researchers' access to the cave. The country's anthropological establishment, which has close ties to the government, bitterly opposes the theory that the Hobbits were a separate species, it quoted them as saying. "My guess is that we will not work at Liang Bua again, this year or any other year," Morwood reportedly said.
"Hobbit" Brains Were Small but Smart, Study Says Hillary Mayell for National Geographic Channel and National Geographic News March 3, 2005
A computer image shows a model of the brain (red) and skull (transparent) of a Homo floresiensis. Nicknamed "hobbits" after
The recently discovered "hobbit" fossils do in fact represent a new human species, according to a new study of a hobbit braincase. What's more, the little humans seem to have been more intelligent than expected, given their extremely small brains—a finding that may completely change how scientists view human evolution. Last October a team of Australian and Indonesian archaeologists reported the discovery of the18,000-yearold bones of an adult female hobbit. The only known hobbit skull is from this female, though archaeologists later found partial remains of seven other individuals. Formally known as Homo floresiensis, the fossil skeleton has a unique combination of features not seen in any other humans or human ancestors. (See photos of the "hobbit.") Flores, an isolated island in Indonesia, was colonized by early humans as far back as 800,000 years ago. But from at least 95,000 years ago until around 12,000 years ago, it was occupied by these tiny humans. H. floresiensis grew to be only about three feet (one meter) tall—prompting archaeologists to christen them "hobbits," after the diminutive Lord of the Rings characters.
Despite having very small brains—roughly the size of a chimpanzee's—they appear to have hunted animals twice their size, made stone tools for hunting and butchering, and used fire for cooking. "It's remarkable. We've always been taught and thought that as humans evolved, the bigger the brain, the better they are," said Charles Hildebolt, a physical anthropologist at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. "If this little creature actually made the tools and was using the tools, built the fire and was using the fire, then that really tips human evolution upside down and changes the way we have to think about brain evolution. It may indicate that the reorganization of the brain was just as important and may be even more important than size."
Hildebolt was a member of the team, led by paleoneurologist Dean Falk of Florida State University, that studied the braincase of the species. Small but Powerful Brains Falk and her team created a virtual, three-dimensional cast of the interior of the fossilized H. floresiensis skull. Called an endocast, the model shows a variety of features, including the brain's size, shape, vessels, and convolutions. This hobbit endocast was then compared with virtual endocasts and latex endocasts of modern humans, gorillas, chimpanzees, an adult female Pygmy, and three early human ancestors: Australopithecus africanus, a species that lived around 2.5 million years ago; Paranthropus aethiopicus, a species that appears in the fossil record about 2.7 million years ago, and Homo erectus, a species that lived from about 1,600,000 to 250,000 years ago.
Some scientists have speculated that the hobbit fossil was not of a new species but rather of a modern human with microcephaly, a birth defect in which a person has an abnormally small brain. To address this concern, Falk's team also compared the hobbit braincase to that of a known modern human microcephalic. "We think it least resembles a microcephalic," Hildebolt said. "It has a lateral profile that is somewhat similar to a Homo erectus, but it has other features that are similar to modern humans. The combination is unique." Falk agrees and contends that the exhaustive analysis puts skeptics' claims that the hobbit is really a microcephalic to rest. "The scaling of brain to body isn't at all what we'd expect to find in Pygmies, and the shape is all wrong to be a microcephalic," Falk said. "This is something new." Although much smaller than in modern humans, the hobbit's frontal lobe contains a region known as Brodmann's area 10, which is very convoluted and has large swellings. In the modern human brain, area 10 is associated with higher cognitive processes such as planning ahead and taking initiative. When scaled for size, the hobbit also has larger temporal lobes than Homo erectus does. In modern humans the temporal lobes are associated with hearing and understanding speech.
"This species was undergoing its own long evolution on this island," Falk said. "Our data are consistent with the kinds of sophisticated behaviors being reported." H. floresiensis "is a really strange combination of some very advanced traits, some that are very primitive, and some that are unique," said Mike Morwood, an archaeologist from the University of New England in Australia. Morwood led the team that first found the hobbit remains. Morwood said the stone tools found close to the H. floresiensis fossils represent "a very sophisticated assemblage of stone artifacts and are directly associated with evidence of hunting and butchering of stegadon, a dwarf elephant." Hildebolt, though, pointed out that this doesn't automatically mean that the tools and cooking evidence are associated with the new species. Other scientists agree with him.
"I am cautious about drawing too many conclusions about brain quality from endocranial surface features [features inside the skull], and I am still cautious about the extent of the 'advanced' behavior inferred for Homo floresiensis from the archaeological evidence," said Chris Stringer, director of the Human Origins Program at the Natural History Museum in London. "For me, the most significant aspects of this new study are the demonstration that the endocranium is very different from that of a small-bodied, or a microcephalic, H. sapiens and that it does, with some differences, most resemble endocasts of H. erectus." The Falk team's report appears in today's issue of the online version of the journal Science. Their findings will also be featured on the National Geographic Channel's Explorer TV series on March 13 at 8 p.m. ET/PT.
Tiny Contemporary Humans? Scientists have long thought that, with the extinction of the Neandertals roughly 30,000 years ago, H. sapiens was the only human species left on the planet. The discovery that another human species, vastly different from us, existed up until about 13,000 years ago is a stunning find. Who were they and how did they get to Flores? There are several hypotheses. The team of archaeologists that found the hobbit fossils —led by Mike Morwood, Bert Roberts, and Thomas the tiny Lord of the Rings characters, the long-extinct creatures have been confirmed as a new human species (Homo floresiensis), according to a new skull study. They also appeared to have been relatively smart, considering their small brains—a finding that is at odds with current human-evolution theory.
Brains Were Small but Smart, Study Says Sutikna—suggested that the hobbits' small stature was the result of a phenomenon known as island dwarfing. Flores island has been inhabited by some species of human since at least 800,000 years ago. The team that found the fossils leans toward the theory that, once there, this earlier species evolved into H. floresiensis. Over thousands of years, the theory goes, their bodies adapted to the constraints of island living in the same way that many other mammals' bodies do. With food in short supply, their skeletons grew smaller—a process called island dwarfing. And because reptiles on islands frequently grow larger, the hobbits may have been both predators and prey. If so, they would have needed to be smarter just to survive —there would be a significant evolutionary advantage to developing a more highly evolved brain. "Small and smart is definitely better than small and dumb," Hildebolt laughed.
The authors of the braincase study, which was funded by the National Geographic Society, support an alternative hypothesis that was originally presented by the team that found the fossils. They suggest that H. floresiensis existed as a species before arriving on Flores—that it was already tiny on arrival. It's possible, they say, that there was a smallbodied, small-brained, as yet unknown species of human ancestor (possibly H. floresiensis) that may have left Africa at around the same time as Homo erectus, about 1.8 million years ago. "We're not dismissing the island-dwarfing hypothesis. It's just that we think the other seems maybe a little stronger," Hildebolt said.